oracle9i 笔记 (推荐,很实用)

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oracle9i 笔记=========================================================== 

create database db01 
maxlogfiles 10 
maxdatafiles 1024 
maxinstances 2 
logfile 
GROUP 1 (‘/u01/oradata/db01/log_01_db01.rdo’) SIZE 15M, 
GROUP 2 (‘/u01/oradata/db01/log_02_db01.rdo’) SIZE 15M, 
GROUP 3 (‘/u01/oradata/db01/log_03_db01.rdo’) SIZE 15M, 
datafile ‘u01/oradata/db01/system_01_db01.dbf’) SIZE 100M, 
undo tablespace UNDO 
datafile ‘/u01/oradata/db01/undo_01_db01.dbf’ SIZE 40M 
default temporary tablespace TEMP 
tempfile ‘/u01/oradata/db01/temp_01_db01.dbf’ SIZE 20M 
extent management local uniform size 128k 
character set AL32UTE8 
national character set AL16UTF16 
set time_zone=’America/New_York’; 
############### 数据字典 ########## 
set wrap off 
select * from v$dba_users; 
grant select on table_name to user/rule; 
select * from user_tables; 
select * from all_tables; 
select * from dba_tables; 
revoke dba from user_name; 
shutdown immediate 
startup nomount 
select * from v$instance; 
select * from v$sga; 
select * from v$tablespace; 
alter session set nls_language=american; 
alter database mount; 
select * from v$database; 
alter database open; 
desc dictionary 
select * from dict; 
desc v$fixed_table; 
select * from v$fixed_table; 
set oracle_sid=foxconn 
select * from dba_objects; 
set serveroutput on 
execute dbms_output.put_line(‘sfasd’); 
############# 控制文件 ########### 
select * from v$database; 
select * from v$tablespace; 
select * from v$logfile; 
select * from v$log; 
select * from v$backup; 
/*备份用户表空间*/ 
alter tablespace users begin backup; 
select * from v$archived_log; 
select * from v$controlfile; 
alter system set control_files=’$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl01.ctl’, 
‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl02.ctl’ scope=spfile; 
cp $ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl01.ctl $ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl02.ctl 
startup pfile=’../initSID.ora’ 
select * from v$parameter where name like ‘control%’ ; 
show parameter control; 
select * from v$controlfile_record_section; 
select * from v$tempfile; 
/*备份控制文件*/ 
alter database backup controlfile to ‘../filepath/control.bak’; 
/*备份控制文件,并将二进制控制文件变为了asc 的文本文件*/ 
alter database backup controlfile to trace; 
############### redo log ############## 
archive log list; 
alter system archive log start;–启动自动存档 
alter system switch logfile;–强行进行一次日志switch 
alter system checkpoint;–强制进行一次checkpoint 
alter tablspace users begin backup; 
alter tablespace offline; 
/*checkpoint 同步频率参数FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET,同步频率越高,系统恢复所需时间越短*/ 
show parameter fast; 
show parameter log_checkpoint; 
/*加入一个日志组*/ 
alter database add logfile group 3 (‘/$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo’ size 10M); 
/*加入日志组的一个成员*/ 
alter database add logfile member ‘/$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo’ to group 3; 
/*删除日志组:当前日志组不能删;活动的日志组不能删;非归档的日志组不能删*/ 
alter database drop logfile group 3; 
/*删除日志组中的某个成员,但每个组的最后一个成员不能被删除*/ 
alter databse drop logfile member ‘$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo’; 
/*清除在线日志*/ 
alter database clear logfile ‘$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo’; 
alter database clear logfile group 3; 
/*清除非归档日志*/ 
alter database clear unarchived logfile group 3; 
/*重命名日志文件*/ 
alter database rename file ‘$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo’ to ‘$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6a.rdo’; 
show parameter db_create; 
alter system set db_create_online_log_dest_1=’path_name’; 
select * from v$log; 
select * from v$logfile; 


/*数据库归档模式到非归档模式的互换,要启动到mount状态下才能改变;startup mount; 
然后再打开数据库.*/ 
alter database noarchivelog/archivelog; 
achive log start;—启动自动归档 
alter system archive all;--手工归档所有日志文件 
select * from v$archived_log; 
show parameter log_archive; 
###### 分析日志文件logmnr ############## 
1) 在init.ora中set utl_file_dir 参数 
2) 重新启动oracle 
3) create 目录文件 
desc dbms_logmnr_d; 
dbms_logmnr_d.build; 
4) 加入日志文件 add/remove log file 
dhms_logmnr.add_logfile 
dbms_logmnr.removefile 
5) start logmnr 
dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr 
6) 分析出来的内容查询 v$logmnr_content –sqlredo/sqlundo 
实践: 
desc dbms_logmnr_d; 
/*对数据表做一些操作,为恢复操作做准备*/ 
update 表 set qty=10 where stor_id=6380; 
delete 表 where stor_id=7066; 
/***********************************/ 
utl_file_dir的路径 
execute dbms_logmnr_d.build(‘foxdict.ora’,’$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/admin/fox/cdump’); 
execute dbms_logmnr.add_logfile(‘$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.log’,dbms_logmnr.newfile); 
execute dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr(dictfilename=>;’$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/admin/fox/cdump/foxdict.ora’); 
######### tablespace ############## 
select * form v$tablespace; 
select * from v$datafile; 
/*表空间和数据文件的对应关系*/ 
select t1.name,t2.name from v$tablespace t1,v$datafile t2 where t1.ts#=t2.ts#; 
alter tablespace users add datafile ‘path’ size 10M; 
select * from dba_rollback_segs; 
/*限制用户在某表空间的使用限额*/ 
alter user user_name quota 10m on tablespace_name; 
create tablespace xxx [datafile ‘path_name/datafile_name’] [size xxx] [extent management local/dictionary] [default storage(xxx)]; 
exmple: create tablespace userdata datafile ‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf’ size 100M AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 5M MAXSIZE 200M; 
create tablespace userdata datafile ‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf’ size 100M extent management dictionary default storage(initial 100k next 100k pctincrease 10) offline; 
/*9i以后,oracle建议使用local管理,而不使用dictionary管理,因为local采用bitmap管理表空间,不会产生系统表空间的自愿争用;*/ 
create tablespace userdata datafile ‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf’ size 100M extent management local uniform size 1m; 
create tablespace userdata datafile ‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf’ size 100M extent management local autoallocate; 
/*在创建表空间时,设置表空间内的段空间管理模式,这里用的是自动管理*/ 
create tablespace userdata datafile ‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf’ size 100M extent management local uniform size 1m segment space management auto; 
alter tablespace userdata mininum extent 10; 
alter tablespace userdata default storage(initial 1m next 1m pctincrease 20); 
/*undo tablespace(不能被用在字典管理模下) */ 
create undo tablespace undo1 datafile ‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo101.dbf’ size 40M extent management local; 
show parameter undo; 
/*temporary tablespace*/ 
create temporary tablespace userdata tempfile ‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo101.dbf’ size 10m extent management local; 


*设置数据库缺省的临时表空间*/ 
alter database default temporary tablespace tablespace_name; 
/*系统/临时/在线的undo表空间不能被offline*/ 
alter tablespace tablespace_name offline/online; 
alter tablespace tablespace_name read only; 
/*重命名用户表空间*/ 
alter tablespace tablespace_name rename datafile ‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo101.dbf’ to ‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf’; 
/*重命名系统表空间 ,但在重命名前必须将数据库shutdown,并重启到mount状态*/ 
alter database rename file ‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/system01.dbf’ to ‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/system02.dbf’; 
drop tablespace userdata including contents and datafiles;—drop tablespce 
/*resize tablespace,autoextend datafile space*/ 
alter database datafile ‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf’ autoextend on next 10m maxsize 500M; 
/*resize datafile*/ 
alter database datafile ‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf’ resize 50m; 
/*给表空间扩展空间*/ 
alter tablespace userdata add datafile ‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf’ size 10m; 
/*将表空间设置成OMF状态*/ 
alter system set db_create_file_dest=’$ORACLE_HOME/oradata’; 
create tablespace userdata;—use OMF status to create tablespace; 
drop tablespace userdata;—user OMF status to drop tablespace; 
select * from dba_tablespace/v$tablespace/dba_data_files; 
/*将表的某分区移动到另一个表空间*/ 
alter table table_name move partition partition_name tablespace tablespace_name; 
###### ORACLE storage structure and relationships ######### 
/*手工分配表空间段的分区(extend)大小*/ 
alter table kong.test12 allocate extent(size 1m datafile ‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf’); 
alter table kong.test12 deallocate unused; —释放表中没有用到的分区 
show parameter db; 
alter system set db_8k_cache_size=10m; —配置8k块的内存空间块参数 
select * from dba_extents/dba_segments/data_tablespace; 
select * from dba_free_space/dba_data_file/data_tablespace; 
/*数据对象所占用的字节数*/ 
select sum(bytes) from dba_extents where onwer=’kong’ and segment_name =’table_name’; 
############ UNDO Data ################ 
show parameter undo; 
alter tablespace users offline normal; 
alter tablespace users offline immediate; 
recover datafile ‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf’; 
alter tablespace users online ; 
select * from dba_rollback_segs; 
alter system set undo_tablespace=undotbs1; 


*忽略回滚段的错误提示*/ 
alter system set undo_suppress_errors=true; 
/*在自动管理模式下,不会真正建立rbs1;在手工管理模式则可以建立,且是私有回滚段*/ 
create rollback segment rbs1 tablespace undotbs; 
desc dbms_flashback; 
/*在提交了修改的数据后,9i提供了旧数据的回闪操作,将修改前的数据只读给用户看,但这部分数据不会又恢复在表中,而是旧数据的一个映射*/ 
execute dbms_flashback.enable_at_time(’26-JAN-04:12:17:00 pm’); 
execute dbms_flashback.disable; 
/*回滚段的统计信息*/ 
select end_time,begin_time,undoblks from v$undostat; 
/*undo表空间的大小计算公式: UndoSpace=[UR * (UPS * DBS)] + (DBS * 24) 
UR :UNDO_RETENTION 保留的时间(秒) 
UPS :每秒的回滚数据块 
DBS:系统EXTENT和FILE SIZE(也就是db_block_size)*/ 
select * from dba_rollback_segs/v$rollname/v$rollstat/v$undostat/v$session/v$transaction; 
show parameter transactions; 
show parameter rollback; 
/*在手工管理模式下,建立公共的回滚段*/ 
create public rollback segment prbs1 tablespace undotbs; 
alter rollback segment rbs1 online;—-在手工管理模式 
/*在手工管理模式中,initSID.ora中指定 undo_management=manual 、rollback_segment=(‘rbs1′,’rbs2’,…)、 
transactions=100 、transactions_per_rollback_segment=10 
然后 shutdown immediate ,startup pfile=….???.ora */ 
########## Managing Tables ########### 
/*char type maxlen=2000;varchar2 type maxlen=4000 bytes 
rowid 是18位的64进制字符串 (10个bytes 80 bits) 
rowid组成: object#(对象号)–32bits,6位 
rfile#(相对文件号)–10bits,3位 
block#(块号)–22bits,6位 
row#(行号)–16bits,3位 
64进制: A-Z,a-z,0-9,/,+ 共64个符号 

dbms_rowid 包中的函数可以提供对rowid的解释*/ 

select rowid,dbms_rowid.rowid_block_number(rowid),dbms_rowid.rowid_row_number(rowid) from table_name; 
create table test2 

id int, 
lname varchar2(20) not null, 
fname varchar2(20) constraint ck_1 check(fname like ‘k%’), 
empdate date default sysdate) 
) tablespace tablespace_name; 
create global temporary table test2 on commit delete/preserve rows as select * from kong.authors; 
create table user.table(…) tablespace tablespace_name storage(…) pctfree10 pctused 40; 
alter table user.tablename pctfree 20 pctused 50 storage(…);—changing table storage 
/*手工分配分区,分配的数据文件必须是表所在表空间内的数据文件*/ 
alter table user.table_name allocate extent(size 500k datafile ‘…’); 
/*释放表中没有用到的空间*/ 
alter table table_name deallocate unused; 
alter table table_name deallocate unused keep 8k; 
/*将非分区表的表空间搬到新的表空间,在移动表空间后,原表中的索引对象将会不可用,必须重建*/ 
alter table user.table_name move tablespace new_tablespace_name; 
create index index_name on user.table_name(column_name) tablespace users; 
alter index index_name rebuild; 
drop table table_name [CASCADE CONSTRAINTS]; 
alter table user.table_name drop column col_name [CASCADE CONSTRAINTS CHECKPOINT 1000];—drop column 
/*给表中不用的列做标记*/ 
alter table user.table_name set unused column comments CASCADE CONSTRAINTS; 
/*drop表中不用的做了标记列*/ 
alter table user.table_name drop unused columns checkpoint 1000; 
/*当在drop col是出现异常,使用CONTINUE,防止重删前面的column*/ 
ALTER TABLE USER.TABLE_NAME DROP COLUMNS CONTINUE CHECKPOINT 1000; 
select * from dba_tables/dba_objects; 


######## managing indexes ########## 
/*create index*/ 
example: 
/*创建一般索引*/ 
create index index_name on table_name(column_name) tablespace tablespace_name; 
/*创建位图索引*/ 
create bitmap index index_name on table_name(column_name1,column_name2) tablespace tablespace_name; 
/*索引中不能用pctused*/ 
create [bitmap] index index_name on table_name(column_name) tablespace tablespace_name pctfree 20 storage(inital 100k next 100k) ; 
/*大数据量的索引最好不要做日志*/ 
create [bitmap] index index_name table_name(column_name1,column_name2) tablespace_name pctfree 20 storage(inital 100k next 100k) nologging; 
/*创建反转索引*/ 
create index index_name on table_name(column_name) reverse; 
/*创建函数索引*/ 
create index index_name on table_name(function_name(column_name)) tablespace tablespace_name; 
/*建表时创建约束条件*/ 
create table user.table_name(column_name number(7) constraint constraint_name primary key deferrable using index storage(initial 100k next 100k) tablespace tablespace_name,column_name2 varchar2(25) constraint constraint_name not null,column_name3 number(7)) tablespace tablespace_name; 
/*给创建bitmap index分配的内存空间参数,以加速建索引*/ 
show parameter create_bit; 
/*改变索引的存储参数*/ 
alter index index_name pctfree 30 storage(initial 200k next 200k); 
/*给索引手工分配一个分区*/ 
alter index index_name allocate extent (size 200k datafile ‘$ORACLE/oradata/..’); 
/*释放索引中没用的空间*/ 
alter index index_name deallocate unused; 
/*索引重建*/ 
alter index index_name rebuild tablespace tablespace_name; 
/*普通索引和反转索引的互换*/ 
alter index index_name rebuild tablespace tablespace_name reverse; 
/*重建索引时,不锁表*/ 
alter index index_name rebuild online; 
/*给索引整理碎片*/ 
alter index index_name COALESCE; 
/*分析索引,事实上是更新统计的过程*/ 
analyze index index_name validate structure; 
desc index_state; 
drop index index_name; 
alter index index_name monitoring usage;—–监视索引是否被用到 
alter index index_name nomonitoring usage;—-取消监视 
/*有关索引信息的视图*/ 
select * from dba_indexes/dba_ind_columns/dbs_ind_expressions/v$object_usage; 
########## 数据完整性的管理(Maintaining data integrity) ########## 
alter table table_name drop constraint constraint_name;—-drop 约束 
alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name primary key(column_name1,column_name2);—–创建主键 
alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name unique(column_name1,column_name2);—创建唯一约束 
/*创建外键约束*/ 
alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name foreign key(column_name1) references table_name(column_name1); 
/*不效验老数据,只约束新的数据[enable/disable:约束/不约束新数据;novalidate/validate:不对/对老数据进行验证]*/ 
alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name check(column_name like ‘B%’) enable/disable novalidate/validate; 
/*修改约束条件,延时验证,commit时验证*/ 
alter table table_name modify constraint constraint_name initially deferred; 
/*修改约束条件,立即验证*/ 
alter table table_name modify constraint constraint_name initially immediate; 
alter session set constraints=deferred/immediate; 
/*drop一个有外键的主键表,带cascade constraints参数级联删除*/ 
drop table table_name cascade constraints; 
/*当truncate外键表时,先将外键设为无效,再truncate;*/ 
truncate table table_name; 
/*设约束条件无效*/ 
alter table table_name disable constraint constraint_name; 
alter table table_name enable novalidate constraint constraint_name; 
/*将无效约束的数据行放入exception的表中,此表记录了违反数据约束的行的行号;在此之前,要先建exceptions表*/ 
alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name check(column_name >;15) enable validate exceptions into exceptions; 
/*运行创建exceptions表的脚本*/ 
start $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utlexcpt.sql; 
/*获取约束条件信息的表或视图*/ 
select * from user_constraints/dba_constraints/dba_cons_columns; 


################## managing password security and resources #################### 
alter user user_name account unlock/open;—-锁定/打开用户; 
alter user user_name password expire;—设定口令到期 
/*建立口令配置文件,failed_login_attempts口令输多少次后锁,password_lock_times指多少天后口令被自动解锁*/ 
create profile profile_name limit failed_login_attempts 3 password_lock_times 1/1440; 
/*创建口令配置文件*/ 
create profile profile_name limit failed_login_attempts 3 password_lock_time unlimited password_life_time 30 password_reuse_time 30 password_verify_function verify_function password_grace_time 5; 
/*建立资源配置文件*/ 
create profile prfile_name limit session_per_user 2 cpu_per_session 10000 idle_time 60 connect_time 480; 
alter user user_name profile profile_name; 
/*设置口令解锁时间*/ 
alter profile profile_name limit password_lock_time 1/24; 
/*password_life_time指口令文件多少时间到期,password_grace_time指在第一次成功登录后到口令到期有多少天时间可改变口令*/ 
alter profile profile_name limit password_lift_time 2 password_grace_time 3; 
/*password_reuse_time指口令在多少天内可被重用,password_reuse_max口令可被重用的最大次数*/ 
alter profile profile_name limit password_reuse_time 10[password_reuse_max 3]; 
alter user user_name identified by input_password;—–修改用户口令 
drop profile profile_name; 
/*建立了profile后,且指定给某个用户,则必须用CASCADE才能删除*/ 
drop profile profile_name CASCADE; 
alter system set resource_limit=true;—启用自愿限制,缺省是false 
/*配置资源参数*/ 
alter profile profile_name limit cpu_per_session 10000 connect_time 60 idle_time 5; 
/*资源参数(session级) 
cpu_per_session 每个session占用cpu的时间 单位1/100秒 
sessions_per_user 允许每个用户的并行session数 
connect_time 允许连接的时间 单位分钟 
idle_time 连接被空闲多少时间后,被自动断开 单位分钟 
logical_reads_per_session 读块数 
private_sga 用户能够在SGA中使用的私有的空间数 单位bytes 
(call级) 
cpu_per_call 每次(1/100秒)调用cpu的时间 
logical_reads_per_call 每次调用能够读的块数 
*/ 
alter profile profile_name limit cpu_per_call 1000 logical_reads_per_call 10; 
desc dbms_resouce_manager;—资源管理器包 
/*获取资源信息的表或视图*/ 
select * from dba_users/dba_profiles; 
###### Managing users ############ 
show parameter os; 
create user testuser1 identified by kxf_001; 
grant connect,createtable to testuser1; 
alter user testuser1 quota 10m on tablespace_name; 
/*创建用户*/ 
create user user_name identified by password default tablespace tablespace_name temporary tablespace tablespace_name quota 15m on tablespace_name password expire; 
/*数据库级设定缺省临时表空间*/ 
alter database default temporary tablespace tablespace_name; 
/*制定数据库级的缺省表空间*/ 
alter database default tablespace tablespace_name; 
/*创建os级审核的用户,需知道os_authent_prefix,表示oracle和os口令对应的前缀,’OPS

为此参数的值,此值可以任意设置*/ 
create user user_name identified by externally default OPS$tablespace_name tablespace_name temporary tablespace tablespace_name quota 15m on tablespace_name password expire; 
/*修改用户使用表空间的限额,回滚表空间和临时表空间不允许授予限额*/ 
alter user user_name quota 5m on tablespace_name; 
/*删除用户或删除级联用户(用户对象下有对象的要用CASCADE,将其下一些对象一起删除)*/ 
drop user user_name [CASCADE]; 
/*每个用户在哪些表空间下有些什么限额*/ 
desc dba_ts_quotas;select * from dba_ts_quotas where username=’…’; 
/*改变用户的缺省表空间*/ 
alter user user_name default tablespace tablespace_name;


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